Bed bugs belong to the family of the Cimids. They all feed on the blood of birds and mammals. Only
for this purpose, the sucking of blood, they seek their hosts. About eighty blood-sucking bug species
are known worldwide, six of these are mainly found in Europe. Due to the globalization - and the
associated exchange of goods - as well as the increased travel activity in modern times, bed bugs are
increasingly being abducted worldwide. They are strongly bound to humans and animals and are mainly
found in dwellings, stables, mammalian buildings and birds' houses. The spreading of bedbugs extends
north to the 65th degree of latitude and thus ends just below the polar circle. Up to a height of two
thousand meters, bedbugs can be found even in the Alps.
The first types of today known bedbugs lived about three hundred million years ago, as it is known
by fossil discoveries. From these ones all other types of bedbugs developed later on, making the
bedbug a cultural and civilization successor being very well adapted to the human life and habits. In
prehistoric times humans and bats used to live together in caves. While bedbugs had stung only bats
at first, they later started to infest humans as well. In later eras it was the most comfortable for
bedbugs in the Mediterranean, because of the moderate temperatures and the humidity, helping them in
their development. The construction of buildings with various hiding places in the form of crevices,
crevices, holes and alike as well as suitable temperatures and a corresponding humidity in the
interior also created an optimal habitat with ideal conditions - always close to humans.
After the Second World War, the population of bedbugs rose again, but was successfully combated
with DDT, which is prohibited nowadays but unfortunately still detectable in the nature. From 1950
to the nineties of the last century, it was rare to become attacked by bed bugs, due to that massive
chemical control. In the past twenty years, however, pest control companies have reported a renewed
increase of bedbugs. Increased travel activity, global trade and the commerce with second-hand goods
led again to their spread - this time also over long distances. The fight against cockroaches by
feeding toxins is another reason for the increase of bedbugs. In contrary to the past, when
insecticides were sprayed widely, cockroaches are nowadays targeted by the use of bait gels,
specially designed for them. Thus the cockroaches die, but the bedbugs - in contrast to the control
by the application of contact insecticides - remain unaffected.
Hotels, turistic resorts, holiday apartments and houses are particularly vulnerable areas, since
there is a constant change of different residents. But even in rented caravans or mobile homes, or on
used furniture, bed bugs or their eggs can be found.
Development of Bedbugs
Every day the female bedbug lays between two up to ten, about one millimeter long, milky white
eggs, which they carefully hidden usually near the shelter, but not on humans directly or on clothes.
After five to twenty days the larvae, which are transparent and smaller than a millimeter, hatch from
the eggs, looking like an adult animal already. The larvae of the bed bugs already suckle blood, which
colors their transparent bodies dark red. In a total of five stages the larva develops into an adult
bed bug, whereby they have to suck blood at every stage. However, it does not bother the bed bugs to
starve up to nine months in unfavorable circumstances. The development time from the larva to the
adult animal strongly depends on temperature and humidity. Thus, for example, at an ambient
temperature of 30°C, generally 20 days are neede to a full maturity, but at 22°C this period is
already doubled. At temperatures between 14 and 22°C, the maturation process of the bedbugs is
assumed to be one year, and below 14 ° C there is no development at all.
The Adult Bedbugs
Bed bugs are round, hairy, of a reddish-brown color, about four to five millimeters long and
wingless. In a hungry state, they are paper-thin, and the females are larger than the males. Bedbugs
find their victims by their ability to perceive heat and carbon dioxide. The stinging of bedbugs is
similar to that of mosquitoes and fleas. Also the lancing process and the foreign proteins left in
the attacked body are comparable to a mosquito or flea stitch. Once a week, bed bugs suck up to seven
milliliters of blood. The whole lancing process takes only three to seven minutes. During this hey
gain seven times their weight and can swell up to nine millimeters in size. After the reception of
the blood, the bed bug is no longer flat, but noticeably swollen and almost blackened. Despite their
very small, almost blind facet eyes, bedbugs can excellently perceive differences in brightness. Bed
bugs prefer the darkness and flee the light immediately. If they are disturbed, they dispense a
sweetish fragrance, by which, in certain circumstances, an infestation of bedbugs can be recognize.
In their nests, bedbugs live together with eggs, larvae, dead animals, faeces and remnants of the
molt of the larvae and can reach an average of a half to one year.